If you are affected by anything you read here, you can talk to us.
At Rape Crisis, we always believe victims and survivors, and take their experiences seriously.
Indecent exposure is a form of sexual violence – the phrase we use to describe any sexual activity or act that happened without consent. Other types of sexual violence include rape and sexual assault.
Indecent exposure – or 'flashing', as it is sometimes known informally – is sometimes treated as something 'funny'. But, it's in fact a crime that is often upsetting and scary for the victim or survivor, and can make them feel unsafe. For some people, it can have a long-term impact on their wellbeing.
No-one ever deserves or asks for indecent exposure to happen. 100% of the blame lies with the perpetrator or perpetrators.
It is common to hear of people being ‘flashed’ in parks, on the street and on public transport. However, it can happen anywhere and at any time of the day or night.
So, what exactly do people mean when they use the terms ‘indecent exposure’, ‘flashing’ and 'cyber flashing'?
Someone who commits exposure can be sentenced for up to two years in prison.
Some people who commit this offence show their genitals very quickly before covering them or running away – which is where the term ‘flashing’ comes from.
But, others might expose them for longer and/or sexually pleasure themselves at the same time.
No matter how long it lasted, exposure is always a crime.
Many people who commit exposure also go on to commit other sexual offences that involve physical contact. These include sexual assault and rape.
Victims and survivors of indecent exposure should never feel under any pressure to report what happened to them to the police. It is 100% their decision and they should always only ever do what feels right for them.
Those who do choose to report their experience to police or anyone else are never just ‘making a fuss’. Reports of exposure should always be taken seriously.
Cyber flashing can be carried out by someone the victim knows, or by a stranger. It can happen in lots of different situations – for example:
- On dating apps or websites.
- On social media.
- Over text message.
- Over WhatsApp or other messaging apps.
- During a video call.
- Over email.
- Via Airdrop, Nearby Share or other apps that allow someone to send files to other people close by – including strangers.
Although cyber flashing is a form of indecent exposure, it isn't always treated as a criminal offence in the English and Welsh justice system. That's partly because the law that makes 'exposure' a crime wasn't really written with the online world in mind...
However, the British government recently said it plans to make sure that 'cyber flashing' is clearly named in law as a criminal offence.
The Law Commission, an organisation that recommends legal reforms, says:
Like indecent exposure or flashing that happens in person, cyber flashing is often upsetting and scary for victims and survivors, and can make them feel unsafe. For some people, it can have a long-term impact on their wellbeing.